Wonosobo Regency in which its capital is Wonosobo Subdistrict, is adjacent to Temanggung and Magelang Regencies in the east, Purworejo Regency in the south, Kebumen and Banjarnegara Regencies in the west, and Batang and Kendal Regencies in the north. Wonosobo Regency was established on July 24, 1825 as a Regency under the Sultanate of Yogyakarta after the battle of Diponegoro. Kyai Moh. Ngampah, who helped Pangeran Diponegoro, was appointed as the first Reagent with the title of Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung (K.R.T.) Setjonegoro.
Most of Wonosobo Regency area is mountainous. There are two volcanoes, namely Gunung Sindoro Mountain (3,136 meters high) and Sumbing Mountain (3,371 meters high) in the east (border with Temanggung Regency). The northern region is part of the Dieng Plateau, with its peak Mount Prahu (2,565 meters high), while in the south, there is Wadaslintang Reservoir.
The capital of Wonosobo Regency is in the middle of the Regency, which is the upstream area of Serayu River. Wonosobo is crossed by the provincial road that connecting Semarang with Purwokerto.
Based on folklore, at the beginning of the 17th century, there were the three wanderers, namely Kyai Kolodete, Kyai Karim and Kyai Walik. They began pioneering the settlement now known as Wonosobo. Furthermore, Kyai Kolodete settled in Dieng Plateau, while Kyai Karim settled in Kalibeber and Kyai Walik settled in around the center of Wonosobo. Later, some rulers of Wonosobo are known, such as Tumenggung Kartowaseso as the ruler of Wonosobo region whose power centre is in Selomanik. Also known is Tumenggung Wiroduta as the ruler of Wonosobo whose centre of power in Pecekelan Kalilusi, which then moved to Ledok, Wonosobo or Plobangan today.
One of Kyai Karim's grandchildren was also one of the rulers of Wonosobo, known as Ki Singodewono who has been awarded a place in Selomerto from the Mataram Palace and appointed as the ruler of this region, then his name was changed to Tumenggung Jogonegoro. At that time, the centre was moved to Selomerto. After passing away, Tumenggung Jogonegoro is buried in Pakuncen Village. Furthermore, during the Diponegoro War (1825 - 1830), Wonosobo became one of the defense base for Diponegoro subordinates. Some important persons who support the battle2 of Diponegoro are Imam Misbach or later known as Tumenggung Kertosinuwun, Mas Lurah or Tumenggung Mangkunegaraan, Gajah Permodo and Kyai Muhamad Ngarpah. In the battle against the Dutch, Kyai Muhamad Ngarpah succeeded in earning the first victory. For that success, Pangeran Diponegoro gave the name Tumenggung Setjonegoro to Kyai Muhamad Ngarpah. Furthermore, Tumenggung Setjonegoro was then appointed as The Ledok's ruler under the name of Tumenggung Setjonegoro. Tumenggung Setjonegoro's rule in the Ledok area can be seen further from various sources, including a Dutch report made after the end of the Diponegoro War. It also mentioned that Setjonegoro was the regent who moved the central government from Selomerto to the current Wonosobo area.
The Seminar on Wonosobo Anniversary was held on April 28, 1994 and attended by the Research Team from the Gadjah Mada University (UGM) Literature Faculty, Muspida, community leaders or ‘Sesepuh and Pinisepuh’ Wonosobo including those who were living in Jakarta, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Legislative leader as well as the Coordinating Commissions and Government of Wonosobo concluded that the date of the establishment of Wonosobo was on July 24, 1825.
The number of population of Wonosobo Regency is 773,390 people in 2014 and increased to 777,120 people in 2015, consisting of 394,010 males and 383,110 females.
The number of population aged 15 years and over (workforce) in 2014 in Wonosobo Regency was 419,388 people and increased to 428,556 people in 2015. While, the minimum wage is 1,166,000 rupiah and increased to 1,326,000 in 2016.
By 2015, there were 470 elementary schools and 94 Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (Islamic elementary schools), 110 junior high schools and 31 Madrasah Tsanawiyah (Islamic junior high schools) and 41 both senior high schools and vocational schools and 4 Madrasah Aliyah (islamic senior high schools).
Wonosobo Regency received the Human Rights Regency Award in year 2014. The assessment is based on the implementation of respect, promotion, fulfillment, enforcement and protection of the 5 human rights, namely the right to life, the right to self-development, the right to prosperity, the right to feel safe and women's rights with all 17 indicators, 3 during the assessment period from January to December 2014. Wonosobo Regency got an average value of 91.76 or increased from the previous year's figure of 77.65, therefore got a good valuation in respect category, in addition to achieve the second best in the Central Java Province.
Wonosobo Regency also achieved a perfect score of 13 indicators out of the 17 indicators. The Regency got an increase performance in 10 indicators over the previous year, namely Maternal Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality Rate, vegetation covered in Protected Areas, percentage of Children aged 7-12 year and 13-15 years who were not in elementary and junior high schools respectively, percentage of persons with Illiteracy, the provision of clean water for Population needs, percentage of low income households that have no house, percentage of family who do not have access to the electricity, number of anarchist demonstrations, percentage of women representation in position of the local Government and percentage of violence against women.
Dieng Plateau is an active volcanic area in Central Java, which belongs to Banjarnegara Regency and Wonosobo Regency. Located in the west of the complex of Mount Sindoro and Mount Sumbing. Dieng has an average altitude about 2,000 m above sea level. The temperatures range from 12-20° C in the daytime and 6-10° C at night. In the dry season (July and August), temperatures can reach 0° C in the morning and create a frost that locals call ‘bun upas’ or the poisonous haze because it could cause damage to crops.
Administratively, Dieng is situated at Dieng Kulon Village, Batur Sub-district, Banjarnegara Regency, while western Dieng (Dieng Wetan) situated in Kejajar Sub-district, Wonosobo Regency. This region is one of the most remote areas of Central Java. The craters in the Dieng Plateau area
The active crater at Dieng are craters of volcanic activity which are located beneath the highlands. Mountain monitoring activity was conducted by the Centre of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi/PVMBG) through Dieng Observation Post in Karangtengah Sub-district. The monitored active craters are as follows:
- Sikendang, potentially poisonous gas
- Sinila, potentially poisonous gas
- Timbang, potentially poisonous gas
Sibanteng is in Dieng Kulon Village. This crater experienced a phreatic eruption in January 2009 (15/1), causing the closing of Dieng tourist area for a few days to anticipate the occurrence of gas poisoning disaster. The eruption of the mud could be heard up to 2 Km, destroying the forest owned by Perhutani and its neighborhood, causing landslides that stem the Putih river, the branch of Serayu river. Sibanteng Crater also erupted once before, in July 2003.
Sikidang is the most popular crater in the Dieng highland since it is the most accessible for the visitors. This crater is famous for its gas exit hole that is always moving places in a large area. Its name came from this characteristic, in which the locals saw the exit hole moves around to different places like a deer (or ‘kidang’ in Javanese language).
Sileri is the most active crater and has erupted several times (based on the record: 1944,1964, 1984, July 2003 and September 2009). The last phreatic activity (September 26, 2009) created three new crater slits, accompanied by a spout of material as high as 200 meters. Sinila Crater Sinila is situated in the area of Batur Village, Sumberejo Village, and Pekasiran Village in Batur Sub-district. Sinila Crater were once erupted in the morning of 1979, on February 20, 1979 to be exact. An earthquake caused the residents to running out of their houses, but they were trapped by the poisonous gas that comes out from the Timbang crater, which were caused by the Sinila eruption. A number of residents (149 people) and livestock were killed by the toxic carbon dioxide gas that was released and spread by wind to the residential areas.
Timbang is a crater situated near Sinila and has a moderate volcanic activity. Although less active, this crater is a highly concentrated source of CO 2 gas that killed hundreds of victims in 1979. The last crater increased activity recorded in May 2011, it was spouting white smoke as high as 20 meters, releasing 1,000 ppm of CO 2 that exceeds the safe threshold (the normal concentration in air approaches 400 ppm) and induced the volcanic earthquakes. In the morning of May 31, 2011, this crater again releases CO 2 gas up to 1% v/v (100,000 ppm) accompanied by earthquake tremor. As a result, all activities within a radius of 1 Km was prohibited and the residents of Simbar and Serang Villages were evacuated. The peaks:
- Mount Sumbing (3,387 m)
- Mount Sindoro (3,150 m)
- Mount Prahu (2,565 m)
- Mount Pakuwaja (2,595 m)
- Mount Sikunir (2,463 m), tourist attractions, near Sembungan volcanic lake
- Lake Warna, a tourist attraction with a place of nearby the hermitage
- Lake Cebong, near the tourist village of Sembungan
- Lake Merdada
- Lake Pengilon
- Lake Dringo
- Lake Nila
Lake Menjer is in the villages of Maron, Garung Sub-district, Wonosobo Regency. This lake is about 2 Km from the capital sub-district. Named Lake Menjer is because Maron Village is actually a new village that was previously part of the Menjer territory. This lake is formed by a volcanic eruption at the foot of Mount Pakuwaja. Previously, the source of water was only from a few small springs around the lake and most inhabitants rely on rainfall. In the Dutch colonial government era, some part of Serayu river which is situated in the north of Jengkol village was dammed for the construction of Garung hydroelectric power located under the lake. Then the water was flowed through along a ± 7 km underground tunnel, under the tea plantations of PT. Tambi which in located in some areas of the Kreo and Tlogo Villages. In order to drain the water from this lake to the hydropower, a small part of Lake Menjer was dammed and a pipe were installed under the lake, with a diameter of ± 3m, towards the hydropower which is about 2 Km.
LICENSING AND FINANCING
The provision of business lisence can be managed in the office of Integrated Licensing Service of Wonosobo Regency addressed at Jln Bentengsari no.11, Wonosobo Regency, Phone (0286)-321059.
Microhydro Power Plant
The potential of micro hydro power plant is quite abundant in Wonosobo Regency. This potency should be properly utilized, instead of wasting the potential resources. For this purpose, efforts are made for the construction of hydroelectric power by private parties. While the existing electricity is provided by PT. PLN (Persero).
Development of microhydro power plant.
Serayu watershed area (DAS), particularly the irrigation networks have the potential to bedeveloped as micro hydro power plants (PLTMH). The following locations can be developedfor PLTMH:
- Jengkol (DAS Serayu, Kejajar), with an average water discharge of 2.67 m³/sec and apotential power of 840 KW
- Telon (DAS Serayu, Kalibeber Mojotengah), with an average water discharge of 0.34m³/sec and power potential of 74 KW
- Kemiri (Serayu River, Kalibeber Mojotengah), with an average water discharge of 5.95m³/sec and potential power of 1.18 MW
- Wanganaji Irrigation Network, Andongsili, Mojotengah, with an average water discharge of 2.02 m³/sec and power potential of 158 KW
- Tandu Irrigation Network, Larangan, Mojotengah, with an average water discharge of 2.10 m³/sec and power potential of 610 KW
- Mangli-1 Irrigation Network, Kewijan, with an average water discharge of 2.52 m³/sec and potential power of 594 KW
- Mangli-2 Irrigation Network, Kewijan, with an average water discharge of 2.52 m³/sec and power potential of 198 KW
- Geblok Irrigation Network, Mlipak, Wonosobo, with an average water discharge of 4.07 m³/sec and potential power of 320 KW
- Jaraksari Irrigation Network, Wonosobo, with an average water discharge of 1.26 m³/sec and power potential of 80 KW
The Estimated investment value: Rp 15 Billion
The investment scheme: 100% private investment.
Ambar Arum Wibowo
Kantor Pelayanan Perizinan Terpadu Kabupaten Wonosobo (Integrated Licensing Service
Office of Wonosobo Regency)
Jl. Betengsari No. 11, Wonosobo Regency
Telephone/Fax: + 62 286- 321059
Mobile: +62812 2823 3800